women initiate violence in anywhere from 70% (Feibert 2014) to 83% of domestic incidents (Capaldi, Kim & Shortt 2007 p.103). This high rate of instigation could possibly be linked to societies acceptance and encouragement of violence by women towards men (Harned 2001 p.281).
The Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) credited 52% of all filicides to female perpetrators over the 2005 – 2015-year period (Australian Institute of Criminology 2015 p.2)
Judicial prejudice is also present in relation to the punishment for the murder of a spouse, with research from the United States indicating that 12.9% of females will be acquitted of the murder of their partner as opposed to only 1.4% of men, in addition to these figures, females will receive an average sentence of 6 years instead of the 17 years served by male perpetrators (Hall 2012 p.15)
Data from the NSW Bureau of Statistics and Research reveals that domestic violence rates amongst Indigenous Australian women are six times higher than the national average, and male Aboriginals report rates at four times higher than their non-indigenous counterparts (Mitchell 2011 p.13).
Alcohol was also found to be a contributing factor in 87% of Aboriginal intimate partner deaths as opposed to 44% of non-Aboriginal deaths (Australian Institute of Criminology 2009 p.3).
lesbian relationships report rates of violence of up to 56%, whereas gay men find themselves as victims in only 25% of studied cases (Waldner-Haugrud, Magruder & Vaden Gratch 1997 p.175)
the perpetration of violence by a woman is the greatest predictor of her becoming a victim of intimate partner violence herself (Whitaker et. al 2007 p.941)
the originating causes for violence by women as almost identical as those identified for men, including coercion, anger and punishment (Straus 2009 p.555).
intimate partner violence are 9 times higher for those in lower socio economic neighbourhoods (Evans 2005 p.39)
Australian men effectively making up 25% of the homicide victim numbers of intimate partner violence (Australian Institute of Criminology 2015 p.3).
The Australian Bureau of Statistics found that between 2001 and 2010, 44% of intimate partner homicides were alcohol related, and the percentage of alcohol related domestic assaults were as high as 62%.